Eritrea, formally known as State of Eritrea, is a country in an Eastern African country in the Horn of Africa area, with Asmara as its capital and largest city. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the south, Sudan to the west, and Djibouti to the southeast. Eritrea’s shoreline along the Red Sea stretches for many kilometres towards the northeast and east. The Dahlak Archipelago and other Hanish Islands make up the nation’s total area of approximately 117,600 km2.
Eritrea is a multi-ethnic country with nine ethnic groups recognized. The nine recognized ethnic groups speak nine different languages, with Tigrinya being the most generally spoken, followed by Tigre, Saho, Kunama, Nara, Afar, Beja, Bilen, and Arabic. The three working languages are Tigrinya, Arabic, and English. The majority of the population speaks Afroasiatic languages, either Ethiopian Semitic or Cushitic branches. The Tigrinyas make up roughly 55 percent of the population in these communities, with the Tigre people accounting for around 30 percent. There are also other Nilotic ethnic groups who speak Nilo-Saharan. The territory’s majority of residents follow Christianity or Islam, with a tiny minority following traditional beliefs.
Eritrea is a unitary one-party presidential republic that has never had national legislative or presidential elections. The Eritrean government has one of the worst human rights records in the world. These charges have been refuted by the Eritrean administration as politically motivated. Eritrea’s press freedom is severely restricted; the Press Freedom Index constantly puts it as one of the least free countries in the world. As of 2021, Reporters Without Borders deems the country to have the world’s lowest press freedom, even worse than North Korea, because the government tightly controls all media outlets and access.
Eritrea is a member of the African Union, the UN, and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development, as well as an Arab League observer state.
TRENDING FASHION IN ERITREA
ACCESSORIES IN ERITREA
TRIBES IN ERITREA AND THEIR FASHION
The Afar people
The Afar, also known as the Danakil, Adali, and Odali, are a Cushitic-speaking people who live in the Horn of Africa. They are mostly found in Ethiopia’s Afar region, northern Djibouti, and Eritrea’s entire southern coast. The Afar speak the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family, which includes the Afar language. The Afars are the only people in the Horn of Africa whose ancestral lands border both the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.
The Saho people
The Saho, also known as the Soho, are an Eritrean ethnic group who live primarily in Eritrea’s northern Red Sea region, though some also live in Ethiopia. They are overwhelmingly Muslim. A few Christians, who are also known as the Irob, live along the southern border of Eritrea and Ethiopia.
The Tigrinya people
The Tigrinya people, also known as Tigrigna, are an Eritrean ethnic group. The Tigrinya ethnic group is Eritrea’s largest ethnic group, accounting for roughly 55 percent of the country’s population. In the diaspora, there are also significant Tigrinya communities.
TOURIST AND HISTORICAL PLACES IN ERITREA
The Imperial Palace – The original building dated back to the 16th century and was built by a Turk named Osdemir Pasha.
St Mariam Cathedral – Massawa’s St Mariam Cathedral is an orthodox church. This gorgeous structure has a lovely mural on the outside that most people find really welcoming. The statue across the street is one of a kind in St Mariam.
Senafe – The village is particularly well-known for the Metera (or Balaw Kalaw) ruins, which are largely inhabited by Tigrinya and Saho people.
Qohaito – Qohaito, one of Eritrea’s most notable archaeological sites, is located halfway between Asmara and Senafe.
Massawa – It’s so much fun to stroll through the streets and alleys, discovering all the small porticoes, arcades, and whitewashed buildings tucked here and there.
Keren – This is a pretty town that’s famous for being a quiet and laid back place.
You’ll find colourful markets and plenty of ethnic diversity here.
Filfil – here you’ll find what remains of Eritrea’s tropical forest, which was once an abundant ‘Green Belt’ and is home to a lovely variety of mammals and bird species.
Fiat Tagliero – an old fuel station, one of Asmara’s finest futuristic architecture built
Dankalia – It’s also one of the lowest points on Earth’s surface, having sunk over the years to about 400 feet below sea level. For those adventurers who dare to go, the landscape is fascinating and once in a lifetime.
Dahlak Marine National Park – This is a dense eco-system that has been virtually untouched by humans. Turtles, dolphins, manta rays, and over 300 different fish species can all be found here. If you’re a diver, this is the place to go in Eritrea.
Cinema Roma – lovely century old cinema with original features and lots of object d’art.
Asmara – This capital city has two sides to it. The pleasant walking neighbourhoods, street cafes with delicious Italian coffee, plenty of pastry stores, and a relaxed pace about town are the first things you’ll notice.
MUSIC IN ERITREA
Eritrea’s music includes a diversified blend of traditional and popular traditions that date back to ancient times. Afar, Bilen, Hedareb, Kunama, Nara, Rashaida, Saho, Tigre, and Tigrinya—nine Eritrea’s primary ethnic groups—celebrate independent music-making through a rich tradition of vocalists, instrumentalists, and activities within the country and throughout the international diaspora. The country’s music is influenced by a variety of ethnolinguistic group dynamics in the region, as well as its shared pre-colonial past with Ethiopia and revolutionary independence from Ethiopia, as well as its mid-twentieth-century exposure to globalized American music.
Some musicians in Eritrea include:
Some art work in Eritrea include:
MEALS IN ERITREA
Himbasha – Eritrean celebration bread that is slightly sweet.
Genfo – a stiff porridge-like substance that is normally formed into a round shape with a hole in the middle for the dipping sauce.
Wat – one of the most popular dishes for breaking religious fasts in Eritrea.
Tihlo – a meal that consists of barley dough balls covered with meat and berbere based sauce, often served with snack.
Injera – sour fermented flatbread with a slightly spongy texture.
Gored gored – minced beef marinated in spices and clarified butter.
Fit-fit – a typical Eritrean breakfast.
Shiro – it is made from heavily spiced legume, chickpea, field pea, oil and water.
Shahan – a meal common in East Africa, which is generally served as breakfast.
Ful medames – stew of cooked fava beans served with olive oil, cumin, onion, chili pepper etc.
Samosa – a fried or baked pastry with savory filling.
Kitfo – a meal consisting of minced raw beef, marinated in mitmita.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND HABITAT PROTECTION IN ERITREA
According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Eritrea is forested 15.2 percent of the time, or around 1,532,000 hectares. Eritrea had 34,000 hectares of forest planted.
Forest Cover Change: Between 1990 and 2010, Eritrea lost an average of 4,450 ha per year, or 0.27 percent. Eritrea lost 5.5 percent of its forest cover, or roughly 89,000 acres, between 1990 and 2010.
In living forest biomass, Eritrea’s woods contain – million metric tons of carbon. Biodiversity and Protected Areas: According to the World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Eritrea contains 704 identified species of amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles. 1.0 percent are endemic, meaning they can only be found in one country, while 3.1 percent are endangered. Under IUCN categories I-V, 0.0 percent of Eritrea is protected.
EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN ERITREA
Eritrea is vulnerable to climate change, which has had a deleterious impact on both the marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Temperatures have risen by about 1.7°C in the last 60 years, resulting in massive biodiversity losses, sea level rise, and coral bleaching due to increased sea water temperature, drop in food production, biodiversity loss, and overall ecosystem loss of resilience.
GENDER EQUALITY IN ERITREA
Amina Nurhussein – serving Minister of Health in Eritrea.
Vanessa Tsehaye – Swedish-Eritrean human right activist.
Genet Sium – Eritrean writer, activist and nurse.
Askalu Menkerios – current Minister of Tourism and former Minister of Labour and Social Welfare of Eritrea.
Selman Hassan –Minister of Labour and Human Welfare in Eritrea.
Fozia Hashim – Former Minister of Justice in Eritrea.
Semhar Araia – an Eritrean American social activist, professor and international lawyer.