Austria, also known as the Republic of Austria, is a landlocked nation in Central Europe’s southern region, near the Eastern Alps. It is a federation of nine states, the largest by population being Vienna, the capital and largest city in the state. The country is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. With a population of 9 million, it covers an area of 83,879 km2.
At the end of the first millennium, Austria emerged from the ruins of the Eastern and Hungarian March. It started off as a Bavarian margraviate before becoming a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1156 and an archduchy in 1453. Austria became the heartland of the House of Habsburg when Vienna started functioning as the administrative imperial seat in the 16th century.
Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy where the chancellor serves as the head of government and the president is the head of state. Major cities include Salzburg, Innsbruck, Vienna, Graz, and Linz. Austria consistently ranks among the wealthiest nations in the world by GDP per capita, among the nations with the greatest standards of living, and was placed 18th globally in the Human Development Index in 2020.
ACCESSORIES IN AUSTRIA
TRIBES IN AUSTRIA AND THEIR FASHION
The Burgenland Croats
Burgenland Croats is the name for ethnic Croats in the Austrian state of Burgenland, along with Croats in neighboring Hungary and Slovakia. There are about 320,000 Croats in Austria. They range from 87,000 to 130,000 Burgenland Croats, and 56,785 more people who are citizens of Croatia.
Croatian organizations have appointed representatives to the Austrian government’s Council for National Minorities since 1993.
Within the boundaries of the Austrian state of Carinthia which borders Slovenia, the Slovenes are the native minority ethnic group. They have seats in the National Ethnic Groups Advisory Council and are generally guaranteed their status as a minority group by the Austrian Constitution and international law.
Slovaks have lived in Austria from the first centuries of the Common Era. As of 2016, there were 35,326 Slovaks living in Austria. Slovaks have sizable populations in Vienna and Lower Austria, with a lesser population in Styria.
TOURIST AND HISTORICAL PLACES IN AUSTRIA
Villach – the Hauptplatz (Main Square) in Villach is where visitors should start their stay because it is home to a number of historic sites as well as a large number of art galleries, shops, and cafés. The parish church at the southern end and the Trinity Column in the square’s center are notable landmarks.
Tirol Province – the majority of Tirol Province, which follows the course of the River Inn through the valley, takes up the comparatively small western portion of Austria. The province shares borders with Switzerland to the northeast, Germany to the north, and Italy to the south.
The Wachau Valley – The Baroque Servite monastery of Maria Langegg in Aggsbach-Dorf, which also houses the Wallfahrtsmuseum in Wachau valley, is one of the best preserved of them (Pilgrimage Museum).
St. Anton am Arlberg – one of Austria’s best and most difficult ski resorts is located on this peak in the Tyrolean Alps. There are numerous tracks for intermediate and advanced skiers to select from, and the landscape spans 280 kilometers and rises to a maximum elevation of 2,811 meters.
Melk Abbey – for its architecture as well as its contents, Melk Abbey is regarded as one of the best monasteries in all of Europe. The structure is a huge palace with many courtyards and a magnificent Baroque church.
Linz – the capital of Lower Austria, is situated on both banks of the Danube River, with the majority of its old town attractions concentrated on the southern banks.
Lake Wörthersee – the largest lake in the area and one of the warmest Alpine lakes is Lake Wörthersee. The crystal-clear glacial water can reach temperatures of over 80 degrees Fahrenheit during the hottest months, and in the winter, it is transformed into a sizable ice skating rink.
Klagenfurt – this is an old Town, which was established in 1161, its most famous feature Klagenfurt which was once a market town, still hosts the Benedictine farmer’s market, which features regional farmers from Austria, Italy, and Slovenia. It’s a journey that truly embraces diversity.
Salzburg – One of the best cities in Austria for travellers to have an in-depth cultural experience is Salzburg, which is full of historic attractions. The Getreidegasse, located in Salzburg’s Old City, is home to several shops and beautiful historical structures.
Vienna – Grand palaces, ancient cathedrals, and more than a hundred museums and art galleries may all be found in Vienna, a breathtaking city. The 5.3 kilometer Ringstrasse, which runs through the center of the old city, was constructed in the 19th century as the center of the city’s cultural life.
Historic Innsbruck – the Hofburg, a former court palace, and Maria-Theresien Strasse, home to various 17th- and 18th-century structures, including the Rathaus (Town Hall) and the Annasäule monument (St. Anne’s Column), are two of Innsbruck’s most spectacular historic sites.
The Hallstätter See – the Salzkammergut region of Austria is home to the picturesque mountain lake known as the Hallstätter See. The edge of this placid glacial lake, which is 8.5 kilometers long and barely two kilometers broad at its widest point, is sprinkled with picture-perfect towns.
Gaz – due to its location on the River Mur, Graz, the second-largest city in Austria, has long been a significant trading hub. Many lovely old buildings may be seen in the Old Town of Graz, which has been designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Bregenz – the Bregenz Festival is held on an outstanding stage that like it is floating on the sea (Bregenzer Festspiele). This location hosts an annual music festival including opera and classical music, notable ensembles like the Vienna Symphony Orchestra, and seating for 7,000 people.
Achensee – one of Austria’s top lakes is Achensee. It has the moniker “Sea of Tirol” due to its enormous size, which spans over 6.7 square kilometers and has a maximum depth of 133 meters.
MUSIC IN AUSTRIA
Of course, traditional folk music is just as significant as orchestras and operettas. Wherever people congregate, enjoy life together, celebrate, and dance, this is represented. Brass orchestras and the music used for ballroom dance had a big impact on traditional music. First and foremost, there is “Schrammelmusik,” which is primarily performed in Vienna and involves playing dated songs in tiny ensembles of two to four individuals using only an accordion and a guitar. These days, the Schrammelmusik is especially common at Viennese “Heurigen,” and it typically serves as the cherry on top of a laid-back evening.
Musician in Austria include:
Art work in Austria include:
MEALS IN BELARUS
Zhurek – the history of this intriguing and peculiar soup dates back to the reign of Monomakh. One of the rare Belarusian recipes when the recipe does not call for potatoes.
Tsibriki – these are potato balls with cheese filling. Beer lovers will particularly enjoy an unusual dish since crispy tsibriki and cold beer make the ideal pairing for a social gathering.
Galushki – despite being a classic peasant dish, galushki can be served as a main course as well as a wonderful side dish.
Tukmachi – the primary component of tukmachis is pre-fried onions in fresh lard that are added to the casserole either during or after cooking.
Kletski – you can serve kletski alone with sour cream and fried onions, or you can add some roasted chicken and fresh herbs from the garden to the dish.
Nalistniki – popular in Belarus, nalistniki are much thinner, unleavened liquid dough pancakes that are mainly utilized for serving than for flavoring food.
Viennese Apfelstrudel – this beloved apple dessert consists of apples, raisins, sugar, and cinnamon, encased in a thin sheet of unleavened dough.
Fleischlaberln – they usually consist of pork and beef and are seasoned with salt, pepper, garlic, onions, and parsley.
Martinigansl – it is considered to be a very special Austrian food. It consists of roast goose stuffed with chestnuts and dried plums served with red cabbage and potato dumplings.
Sachertorte – this rich, dense chocolate cake was supposedly invented in Vienna in 1832 at the request of Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND HABITAT PROTECTION
19% or about 755,000 ha of Austria’s forests are designated as protected forests. However, unlike other nations, Austria’s forest legislation does not classify protection forests as designated protection zones for the purpose of protecting the environment. Instead, they identify forests that should be protected by restricted forest use and particular forestry practices. To retain such forests’ positive benefits on man, such as their protective, social, recreational, and general economic functions, is the goal of protection.
The Forest Act defines protection forests as all forests growing on soils that, in the absence of trees, would be degraded by wind, water and weatherin, and where reforestation would only be feasible under very challenging circumstances. Protection woodlands thus defend themselves in order to survive in harsh environments. They guard their locations and the soils where they keep their herd.
Protection forests with commercial output have been added to the classification of protection forests since the Austrian Forest Inventory was first created in 1961, and woods without commercial yields are protected. For this classification, economic factors were crucial: Economic measures are possible in protection forests with commercial yield (7.4% of the total forest area), but only if the protective function is taken into account; in contrast, protection forests without commercial yield (11.9% of the total forested area) cannot, or can only be used to a negligible extent. The latter include woods in virtually inaccessible regions and stands on unfavorable sites with extremely low yields. This indicates that these forests are largely in sync with nature and that human interference is virtually impossible.
EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN AUSTRIA
Austrian habitats, biodiversity, and temperatures are all being impacted by climate change. Temperatures have increased by 1.8 °C since 1950, and over the last 150 years, glaciers have melted, shedding a sizable portion of their volume. The projected implications of climate change include altered precipitation patterns, rising temperatures, decreased snowfall, melting glaciers, and a rise in the frequency of extreme weather events like droughts, increased temperatures, the development of thermophile species, heat and drought stress on animals and plants, an increase in alien and invasive species, an increase in pathogenic organisms and the spread of disease are all factors causing changes in Austria’s ecosystems and biodiversity.
By the middle of the century, it is anticipated that the consequences of climate change will have a substantial impact on Austria’s economy and cost the country between 4.2 and 5.2 million Euros annually. Less snow days generate fewer overnight visitors in the winte; more heat-related illnesses put a strain on the Austrian healthcare system, and more frequent and strong weather events drive up the cost of repairing and maintaining infrastructure.
Austria is ranked 13th in the EU by the Gender Equality Index, scoring 66.5 out of 100. Its rating is 1.4 points under that of the EU.
Leonore gewessler – Austrian Green politician currently serving as Minister of Climate Action, Environment, Energy, Mobility, Innovation and Technology.
Sonja Hammerschmid – Austrian molecular biologist and politician, who was Rector of the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna and Minister of Education.
Valerie Hackl – Austrian businesswoman serving as a managing director of Austro Control. She was also former Minister of Transport.
Johanna Dohnal – Austrian politician and first Austrian Minister for Women.
Beate Hartinger-Klein – Austrian healthcare and insurance manager, educator and politician.
Maria Berger – Austrian politician and currently Judge at the European Court of Justice.
Benita Ferrero-Waldner – Austrian diplomat and politician, and a member of conservative Austrian People’s Party.
Christine Aschbacher – Austrian People’s Party politician who served as Minister of Labour, Family and Youth.