Southeast European nation Bulgaria, formally the Republic of Bulgaria, is located on the eastern side of the Balkans. It is surrounded by the Black Sea to the east, Greece and Turkey to the south, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, and Romania to the north. Bulgaria is the sixteenth-largest country in Europe with a total area of 110,994 square kilometers. Other significant cities include Plovdiv, Varna, and Burgas. Sofia is the capital and largest city of the country.
Bulgaria, which is ranked 68th in the Human Development Index, is a developing nation with an upper-middle income economy. Its market economy, which is a part of the European Single Market, is predominantly centered on services. Agriculture and industry, particularly mining and machine manufacturing, are the next largest sectors. The most corrupt nation in the European Union in 2018 was Bulgaria, making widespread corruption a significant socioeconomic problem. The population of the nation has been decreasing annually since around 1990; it is currently around 6.9 million, down from a peak of around nine million in 1988. This country is likewise experiencing a demographic catastrophe. Bulgaria is a founding member of the OSCE, a member of the Council of Europe, the European Union, and NATO. It also holds a seat on the United Nations Security Council.
TRENDING FASHION IN BULGARIA
ACCESSORIES IN BULGARIA
TRIBES IN BULGARIA AND THEIR FASHION
A “sukman” is a women’s garment that exquisitely unites the three colors of the tricolor. The dress, which is the major component, is constructed of a dark woolen fabric and has a closed tunic-like shape. It is lavishly embellished with braids, lace, or weaved ties in various colors. To contrast with the dress’s black fabric, the front apron, or “fusta,” typically incorporates multiple colors: white, green, red, and yellow. The woolen belt, which is also colored—red, orange, or dark wine—is a component of the outfit.
The boys are dressed in dark clothing. The white shirt is paired with a vest made of black wool, known as an “aba.” The aba is a brief woolen garment with long, narrow sleeves that are often tight to the body and have a low neck. The “poturi,” which are known as “shalvari” due to the drooping bottom, typically have a wide cut. They are constructed of black braid, lavishly ornamented, and have a red belt around their upper end.
Thracian girls are reputed to be stunning and adamant. They exude love, joy, and happiness while wearing a long, white cotton blouse with magnificent embroidery, similar to those worn by Bulgarians in other folklore regions. In the past, they wore a sukman over their shirts that was composed of red woolen fabric and embellished with black embroidered velvet and black braid. The front of the dress is covered with a black woolen apron with white lace, and the cross is encircled by a small belt made of patterned fabric or a belt with buckles. Rich head ornamentation includes wreaths, bracelets, coins, beads, and feathers; caps that have been wrapped in towels are also present.
The “black-cloth” style of men’s Thracian attire consisted of white cotton shirts, red or green woolen vests with black embellishments, and black bows with braids. It has red, blue, orange, white, and green color variations, and ornaments with plant patterns are primarily red in hue. The hat is black and made of sheepskin, and the wool belt is either red or cherry in hue.
TOURIST AND HISTORICAL PLACES IN BULGARIA
Veliko Tarnovo – with its distinctive architecture, cobblestone walkways, vibrant homes, and red rooftops cascading down the hills, the city draws a lot of tourists.
Varna – the largest city on the Black Sea Coast and the third-largest in all of Bulgaria. The city is a terrific place to visit all year round because it is home to many attractions and landmarks. Its excellent beaches make it the ideal summer vacation destination.
Sofia – you shouldn’t leave Sofia off your list of locations to visit in Bulgaria because it has many benefits. Sofia is one of the least expensive places to visit in Europe and offers a variety of amenities, including its own mountain, a rich cultural and historical legacy, lots of green space, delicious food, and an interesting nightlife.
Prohodna Cave – due to its distinctive construction, Prohodna Cave is a favorite location for both tourists and rock climbers. Look up to observe the two apertures in its roof that resemble a pair of eyes so strikingly that the locals started referring to the cave as the Eyes of God.
The Ancient Theater in Plovdiv – this is an amazing building from the first century, still standing today. Here, significant meetings of the local administration as well as theatrical performances and gladiator battles were held. Sit on the historic stones during the summer to enjoy opera or live music.
Belogradchik Rocks – the small village of Belogradchik is surrounded by some amazing rock formations that, like clouds in the sky, can resemble animals, humans, or odd objects.
The Balchik Palace and Botanical Garden – The palace at Balchik and its stunning floral gardens are among the best locations for cultural activities on Bulgaria’s Black Sea coast. The palace belonged to Romanian queen Maria, who at the time ruled over these regions of Bulgaria. She created her own spiritual refuge because she loved Balchik so much.
The Sveshtari Tomb – this ancient Thracian site under UNESCO protection, was found in 1982. The name of the deceased is unknown to archaeologists, but it was constructed for a royal funeral. The ten female figurines within that have their arms raised and seem to be supporting the ceiling are the room’s most striking feature.
The town of Koprivshtitsa – To experience the historical ambience and learn more about how the Bulgarians attained their freedom, stroll by the vibrant homes and stop at one that has been turned into a museum.
Ortsevo – Although you can drive there, the easiest way to get to the village, which is fairly inaccessible, is on foot from Avramovo, the highest train station on the Balkan Peninsula.
Kovachevitsa – refugees from several areas who attempted to flee Ottoman absorption in the 17th century formed the village of Kovachevitsa. An intriguing aspect is that because the village was never under Ottoman rule, traditional and distinctive Bulgarian customs were retained.
Tsarevets Fortress – over 800 years ago, Tsarevets Fortress was erected where the palace of the Bulgarian ruler formerly stood. Visit the Tsarevets Museum Reserve after climbing Tsarevets Hill.
Rila Monastery – this is the largest monastery in Bulgaria, which was founded in the tenth century by the hermit and saint of Bulgaria named Ivan of Rila. It is one of the most important cultural, religious, and architectural landmarks in Bulgaria and a Unesco World Heritage Site.
Krushuna Waterfall – These waterfalls are so picture-perfect that they nearly seem manufactured. The white rock ledges of the cascades contrast well with the blue water.
MUSIC IN BULGARIA
All genres of music connected to Bulgaria, including classical, folk, popular, and other styles, are collectively referred to as Bulgarian music. Composers are involved in opera, ballet, and classical music.
A variety of instruments are employed in Bulgarian music. The “Saz” or “kemençe,” for example, are traditional Asian instruments that have been adapted into several types of folk music. The current dancing music, which is an extension of traditional village music, frequently uses more contemporary instruments.
Instruments are used by the bitovi, a Bulgarian folk band.
Some musicians in Bulgaria include:
Some art work in Bulgaria include:
MEALS IN BULGARIA
Banitsa – This delicious delicacy is a typical Bulgarian pastry made by layering filo dough with beaten eggs and cheese chunks.
Kiselo mlyako – This yoghurt is commonly dished up in conjunction with Bulgarian typical meals.
Shkembe – this Bulgarian soup helps cure a hangover if eaten after waking up with that pesky headache and cotton mouth.
Shopska salata – this is a traditional Bulgarian salad made with chopped cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, peppers, fresh parsley and grated white cheese.
Bulgarian sarma – this is packed cabbage or vine leaves with a delectable blend of rice, spices, and mince, for meat lovers, or only with rice and spices, for vegetarians. This delicious meal will be on the Christmas Eve table as well as being typically served as a beginning.
Meshana Skara – it is all about meat! Bulgarian’s love meat, so this is ideal. It is a combination of grilled meat in various forms and versions
Tarator – this delicious cold soup is a favorite among Bulgarians, especially in the summer. It can also be served as a side dish to a main course, though it is typically served as a first course. Fresh cucumbers, walnuts, garlic, Bulgarian yoghurt, dill, herbs, and vinegar or lemon are frequently used in its preparation.
Moussaka – It made of ground meat, eggs, onion, spices and milk and yoghurt on top to give it that distinctive tangy flavour.
Lentil soup – Brown, red, yellow, green, or black lentils may be used in lentil soup, which may be vegetarian or contain meat. The husk may or may not be included in the soup.
Nettle soup – traditional nettle soup is made from stinging nettles. The best times to have nettle soup are in the spring and early summer when the buds are still tender.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND HABITAT PROTECTION IN BULGARIA
Approximately 3,927,000 acres, or 36.1%, of Bulgaria are covered in trees, according to the United Nations, Food and Agricultural Organization. The most biodiverse and carbon-dense type of forest is primary forest, which makes up 8.6% of this total (338,000). There were 815,000 hectares of planted trees in Bulgaria.
Forest Cover Change: Between 1990 and 2010, Bulgaria lost 30,000 ha, or 0.90%, on average. In all, Bulgaria added 600,000 ha, or 18.0%, of its forest cover between 1990 and 2010.
202 million metric tons of carbon are found in the living biomass of Bulgaria’s woods. According to data from the World Conservation Monitoring Center, there are 535 identified species of amphibians, birds, mammals, and reptiles in Bulgaria. Of these, 4.7% are in danger of extinction and 0.2% are endemic, meaning they only survive in their native nation. There are at least 3572 species of vascular plants in Bulgaria, 9.0% of which are indigenous. IUCN classifications I to V preserve 5.4% of Bulgaria.
EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN BULGARIA
By 2100, the average temperature is predicted to climb by up to 4°C, posing immediate climate dangers to Bulgaria. The patterns of precipitation will also alter.
The repercussions of climate change are numerous and include decreased water reserves, changes in health, disruptions in agricultural output, stress on forests and biodiversity, harm to infrastructure and private property, and many others.
Macroeconomic projections indicate that, in the absence of action, climate change will have a negative financial impact on the nation, potentially erasing Bulgaria’s total economic development by 2050. If adaption measures are done, macroeconomic consequences can be significantly reduced. Cost-benefit evaluations of individual industries demonstrate that taking adaption steps pays money.
GENDER EQUALITY IN BULGARIA
Bulgaria ranks 18th in the EU on the Gender Equality Index with 59.9 points out of 100. Its rating is 8.1 points lower than that of the EU. Bulgaria’s rating has dropped by two places and its score has improved by 4.9 points since 2010.
Yordanka Fandakova – Bulgarian politician and Mayor of Sofia. She was the first woman to hold the position.
Ekaterina Zaharieva – Bulgarian politician who served as the Foreign Minister of Bulgaria.
Temenuzhka Petkova – Bulgarian politician and accountant and also served as Minister of Energy.
Mariyana Nikolova – Bulgarian politician who has been country’s Minister for Tourism since 2020.
Nikolina Angelkova – Bulgarian politician who served as Minister of Tourism.
Rumyana Bachvarova – Bulgarian GERB politician and former Deputy Prime Minister in charge of coalition policy and state administration.